Now we will read First to Last Viceroy of India. In this article we will learn in complete detail all Viceroy of India. The office of Viceroy of India started in 1858 after First war of Independence. Before this Governor General of India used to see administration of India.
After reading this article you will not have any confusion related to Viceroy and Governor General of India.
As you have read in earlier article about the Governor General of India. So we start this article with a question.
Ques- What was the need to add title Viceroy to Governor General of India?
Ans- After First War of Independence, the British Crown took full control of Indian administration from East India Company. Now the direct representative of British Crown was known as Viceroy of India. He dealt with princely states of India whose relationship was not with the British administration but directly with the monarch.
So now let us start Viceroy of India and important events during his regime in India.
- Lord Canning ( 1858 to 1862 )
- He was the first Viceroy of India. ( Very important )
- Transfer of control from East India Company to the crown ( by Government of India Act 1858 )
- White Mutiny
- Indian Council Act of 1861
2. Lord Elgin I ( 1862 to 1863 )
- Wahabi Movement
3. Lord John Lawrence ( 1864 to 1869 )
- High Courts at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras ( in 1865 )
4. Lord Mayo ( 1869 to 1872 )
- Rajkot College in Kathiawar
- Mayo College in Ajmer
- Statistical Survey of India
- Department of Agriculture and Commerce
- Introduction of state Railways.
5. Lord Northbrook ( 1872 to 1876 )
- Kuka Movement in Punjab
6. Lord Lytton ( 1876 to 1880 )
- Famines – which affected Madras, Bombay, Mysore, Hyderabad, parts of central India and Punjab.
- Royal Title Act 1876
- Kaiser-i-Hind ( Queen Victoria )
- Vernacular Press Act 1878
- Arms Act 1878
7. Lord Rippon ( 1880 to 1884 )
- He removed Vernacular Press Act in 1882
- First Factory Act 1881 which improved labour conditions
- Government resolved for financial local self-government.
- Education Commission under Sir William Hunter in 1882
- Ilbert Bill Controversy
8. Lord Dufferin ( 1884 to 1888 )
- Indian National Congress started in 1885 ( Very important )
9. Lord Lansdowne (1888 to 1894 )
- Civil Services were categorised into imperial, provisional and subordinate.
- Durand Commission was set up to decide the Durand Line between India and Afghanistan. After partition this line is between Pakistan and Afghanistan.
10. Lord Elgin II ( 1894 to 1899 )
- Only important event- Chapekar brothers assassinated two British officers.
11. Lord Curzon ( 1899 to 1905 )
- Police Commission under Sir Andrew Frazer ( 1902 ) to review police administration in India.
- Appointment of Universities Commission in 1902
- Indian Universities Act was passed in 1904
- Ancient Monument Preservation Act – 1904.
- Partition of Bengal took place in 1905.
12. Lord Minto II ( 1905 to 1910 )
- Anti – partition movement
- Swadeshi movement
- Split in Congress in Surat Session in 1907
- Establishment of Muslim League by Aga Khan in 1906. ( Very important )
13. Lord Hardinge II ( 1910 to 1916 )
- Transfer of capital from Calcutta to Delhi in 1911
- Bengal Presidency was created in 1911
- Coronation durbar was held in Delhi for King George V in 1911
- Establishment of Hindu Mahasabha by Madan Mohan Malviya in 1915.
14. Lord Chelmsford ( 1916 to 1921 )
- Home Rule League was formed by Annie Besant and Tilak in 1916.
- Lucknow Pact between Congress and Muslim League in 1916.
- Women’s University at Poona was established in 1916.
- Sabarmati Ashram was formed in 1916.
- 3 Satyagraha by Gandhiji :-
- Champaran Satyagraha in 1916
- Kheda Satyagraha in 1918
- Ahmedabad Satyagraha in 1918.
- Montagu’s August Declaration in 1917.
- Saddler’s Commission for reforming educational policy in 1917.
- Rowlatt Act in 1919.
- Jalliawalla Bagh Massacre in 1919.
- Non-Cooperation and Khilafat Movements started.
- Tilak died – 1 August, 1920.
- S. P. Sinha was appointed as governor of Bihar. He was the first Indian to become a governor.
15. Lord Reading ( 1921 to 1926 )
- Chauri Chaura incident on 5th February 1922
- So withdrawal of Non-Cooperation Movement
- Moplah Revolt in Kerala ( 1921 )
- Repeal of Press Act.
- Repeal of Rowlatt Act.
- Kakori Train Robbery in 1925
- Swami Shraddhanand was murdered in 1926.
- Swaraj Party was started by C.R.Das and Motilal Nehru in 1922.
16. Lord Irwin ( 1926 to 1931 )
- Simon Commission visited India in 1928.
- Boycott of Simon Commission.
- Nehru Report- report regarding future Constitution of India.
- Murder of Saunders
- Blast in Assembly Hall of Delhi in 1929.
- Lahore Conspiracy in 1929.
- Death of Jatin Das after a long hunger strike.
- Lahore Session of Congress- Purna Swaraj resolution was taken in 1929.
- Deepavali Declaration – 1929
- Dandi March to start Civil Disobedience Movement on 12 March 1930.
- First Round Table Conference – 1930. It was boycotted
- Gandhi – Irwin Pact 1931
- Supension of Civil Disobedience Movement.
17. Lord Willingdon ( 1931 to 1936 )
- 2nd Round Table Conference in 1931 in which Congress participated.
- Its failure so Civil Disobedience Movement was resumed.
- Communal Award was announced in 1932 and for this reason Communal Electorates were set up.
- In protest to Communal Award , Gandhiji started ‘Fast Unto Death’ when he was in Yeravada Jail. After compromise be broke his fast. The name of this pact was Poona Pact of 1932.
- Third Round Table Conference in 1932.
- Start of Individual Civil Disobedience in 1933.
- Congress Socialist Party was started by Acharya Narendra Dev and Jayprakash Narayana in 1934.
- Government of India Act of 1935.
- All India Kisan Sabha was established in 1936.
18. Lord Linlithgow ( 1936 to 1944 )
- First general election was held in 1936-37 in which Congress got absolute majority.
- Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose elected as the president of Congress in 1938.
- But in 1939 he resigned and formed Forward Bloc.
- Congress ministries resigned after start of Second World War in 1939.
- In Lahore Resolution by Muslim League ( March 1940 ) separate state for Muslims was demanded.
- August Offer in 1940. Congress opposed but Muslim League accepted.
- Subhash Chandra Bose escaped from India in 1941 and organised Indian National Army.
- Cripps Mission plan to offer dominion status to India and setting up of a Constituent Assembly but Congress rejected it.
- Quit India Resolution was passed in 1942.
19. Lord Wavell ( 1944 to 1947 )
- C R Formula in 1944
- Wavell Plan
- Shimla Conference in 1942
- Proposals of Cabinet Mission and proposals were accepted by Congress in 1945.
- Direct Action Day on August 16, 1946 by Muslim League.
- Announcement of end of British Rule in India on 20 February 1947. At that time Clement Attlee was Prime Minister of England.
20. Lord Mountbatten ( March 1947 to August 1947 )
- Introduction of Indian Independence Bill in the House of Commons in England.
- He was the last Viceroy of India.
After Independence the title of Viceroy of India was abolished. Once again the post of Governor General of India was resumed. So let us see who were Governor General of India after Independence.
- Lord Mountbatten ( 1947 to 1948 )
- First Governor General of Free India.
- Murder of Gandhiji on 30 January 1948.
2. C. Rajagopalachari ( June 1948 to January 1950 )
- He was the last Governor General of Free India.
- He was the only Governor General of India.
Now let us discuss some questions answers :
- Who was the first viceroy of India ?
- Who was the last Viceroy of India ?
- Who was the first Governor General of India ?
- Who was the last Governor General of India ?
Ques- Where did the Viceroy of India live?
Ans- Viceroy of India lived in Viceroy’s House which is presently known as Rashtrapati Bhawan which is in Delhi.
Ques- Which Viceroy of India established Port Blair?
Ans- Lord Mayo.
Ques- Who was Viceroy of India in 1932?
Ans- Lord Willingdon
That’s all about Viceroy of India. Happy reading. If you have any doubt , you may ask. Important Article related to this topic :-