Now we will discuss in detail governor general of India list and important events during their rule. Governor of Bengal, Governor General of Bengal, Governor General of India and Viceroy are all different. They all were British but they had different powers and were at different time.
So let us start from beginning. Governor of Bengal, Governor of Madras and Governor of Bombay. They were governors of their respective region.
Governors of Bengal ( 1757 to 1774 ):-
- Robert Clive – He was the first governor of Bengal. Establishment of Dual Government was the main feature during his rule.
- Vanisttart – The Battle of Buxar ( 1764 ) was the main event.
- Warren Hastings – He abolished Dual Government in 1772 started by Robert Clive.
But in 1773 Regulating Act was passed and Governor of Bengal was made Governor General of Bengal. Now Governor of Madras and Governor of Bombay had to work under Governor General of Bengal.
Governor General of Bengal ( 1773 to 1833 ) :-
- Warren Hastings ( 1773- 85 )– He was the last Governor of Bengal and first Governor General of Bengal. His name is important for exam. Important events during his rule includes :-
- Regulating Act of 1773 which is also known as Ring Fence Policy
- Regulating Act of 1781
- Pitt’s India Act- 1484
- Asiatic Society- 1784
- The Rohilla War- 1774
- First Maratha War and Treaty of Salbai in 1782
- Second Mysore War- 1780-84
His relationship with Chait Singh ( Maharaja of Benaras ) was not good because of which he was impeached in England.
2. Lord Cornwallis ( 1786 to 1793) :-
- 3rd Mysore war and Treaty of Seringapatam signed in 1792
- Cornwallis Code in 1793 which included several judicial reforms and separated revenue administration from civil administration. Means now administration was more organised.
- Permanent Settlement of Bengal in 1793.
- Introduction of Civil Services.
3. Sir John Shore ( 1793 to 1798 )
- Charter Act of 1793
- Battle of Kharda in 1795. Read more.
4. Lord Wellesley ( 1798 to 1805 )
- Subsidiary Alliance in 1798
- 4th Mysore War in 1799
- 2nd Maratha War during 1803 and 1805
- Treaty of Bassein was signed during his rule in 1802
5. Sir Geogrge Barlow ( 1805 to 1807 )
6. Lord Minto I ( 1807 to 1813 )
- Treaty of Amritsar with Ranjit Singh in 1809 was only the important event.
7. Lord Hastings ( 1813 to 1823 )
- Anglo Nepal War and Treaty of Sagauli in 1816.
- 3rd Maratha War between 1817 and 1819
- War with Pindaris
- Introduction of Ryotwari System by Thomas Munro ( he was Governor of Madras in 1820)
8. Lord Armherst ( 1823 to 1828)
9. Lord William Bentinck ( 1828 to 1835 )
- Very important – abolition of Sati System rites in 1829
- Suppression thugi
- Charter Act of 1833
- Treaty of Perpetual Friendship with Ranjit Singh was signed during his time.
- He is known as Father of Modern Western Education
Governor General of India List :-
If somebody asks who was the first Governor General of India and who was the last Governor General of Bengal. The answer for both is – Lord William Bentinck. The Charter Act of 1833 converted Governor General of Bengal into Governor General of India. Now we will see the Governor General of India list and important events.
- Lord William Bentinck ( 1833 to 1835 )
- Educational Reforms and English was made official language in 1835
- He abolished Provincial Court of appeals and Circuits which was set up by Cornwallis.
- Annexation of – Mysore, then Coorg and then Central Cachar because of misgovernment
2. Lord Charles Metcalfe ( 1834 to 1836 )
- He passed a new Press Law which removed all the restrictions on the press of India so he is known as the Liberator of Indian Press.
3. Lord Auckland ( 1834 to 1836 )
- First Anglo-French War which was a great shame for British.
- Ranjit Singh died in 1839.
4. Lord Ellenborough ( 1842 to 1844 )
- Sindh was annexed in 1843
- Slavery system was abolished in 1843.
5. Lord Hardinge I ( 1844 to 1848 )
- 1st Anglo- Sikh War from 1845 to 1846 and Treaty of Lahore was signed in 1846. This treaty resulted in end of sovereignty of Sikh in India.
- Abolition of Female Infanticide
- Abolition of Human sacrifice.
6. Lord Dalhousie ( 1848 to 1856 )
- 2nd Anglo-Sikh War and thus annexation of Punjab in 1849.
- Doctrine of Lapse was introduced which is one of the most infamous policy. Through this Policy many regions were annexed. They were- Satara in 1849, Jaitpur and Sambhalpur in 1849, Baghat in 1850, Udaipur in 1852, Jhansi in 1853, Nagpur in 1854 and Awadh in 1856.
- Wood’s Educational Despatch in 1854 and opening of Anglo-Vernacular Schools and some Government Colleges. An Engineering College at Roorkee was also established.
- One very important work- First Railway Line in 1853 from Bombay to Thane.
- Telegraph services were started.
- A separate PWD was established.
- Developed harbours of Karachi, Bombay and Calcutta.
- Widow Remarriage Act of 1856.
7. Lord Canning ( 1856 to 1857 )
- 3 universities were established at Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay in 1857.
- Revolt of 1857
So Lord Canning was the first Viceroy of India. In the next article we will learn about Viceroys of India. If you have have any query about Governor General of India list you are most welcome to put your query in comment section.